5 Functions of the Respiratory System
Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood
Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs
Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment
Produces sounds
Participates in olfactory sense

Regulation of breathing
Medullary rhythmicity center
  Nerves extend to intercostals and diaphragm
  Signals are sent automatically
  Expiratory center is activated during forced breathing
Pneumotaxic area
  Controls degree of lung inflation; inhibits inspiration
Apneustic area
  Promotes inspiration

Chemoreceptors
Breathing can be controlled voluntarily, up to a point
Too much CO2 and H+ will stimulate inspiratory area, phrenic and intercostal nerves
Central chemoreceptors: medulla oblongata monitors CSF

Peripheral chemoreceptors
Aortic bodies (vagus nerve)
Carotid bodies (glossopharyngeal nerve)
Respond to fluctuations in blood O₂, CO2 and H⁺ levels
Rapid respond
Pulmonary stretch receptors prevent over inflation of lungs (promote expiration

4 Pulmonary Volumes
Resting tidal volume:
 in a normal respiratory cycle
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV):
 after a normal exhalation
Residual volume:
 after maximal exhalation
 minimal volume (in a collapsed lung)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):
 after a normal inspiration..
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