HEART FAILURE IN NEONATE AND INFANT

Posted by e-Medical PPT Sunday, December 15, 2013
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a clinical state of systemic and pulmonary congestion resulting from inability of the heart to pump as much blood as required for the adequate metabolism of the body.

Clinical picture of CHF results from a combination of “relatively low output” and compensatory responses to increase it

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN INFANTS WITH HEART FAILURE
  Feeding difficulties
  Rapid respirations
  Tachycardia
  Cardiac enlargement
  Gallop rhythm (S3)
  Hepatomegaly
  Pulmonary rales
  Peripheral edema
  Easy fatigability
  Sweating
  Irritability
  failure to thrive

CLASSIFICATION
NYHA Heart Failure Classification is not applicable
Ross Heart Failure  Classification was developed for global assessment of heart failure severity in infants
Modified to apply to all pediatric ages
Modified Ross Classification incorporates
    Feeding difficulties
    Growth problems
    Symptoms of exercise intolerance

MODIFIED ROSS HEART FAILURE CLASSIFICATION FOR CHILDREN
Class I
Asymptomatic
Class II
Mild tachypnea or diaphoresis with feeding in infants
Dyspnea on exertion in older children
Class III
Marked tachypnea or diaphoresis with feeding in infants
Marked dyspnea on exertion
Prolonged feeding times with growth failure
Class IV
 Symptoms such as tachypnea, retractions, grunting, or diaphoresis at rest

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