Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis_Transmission and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, September 12, 2012
Overview
History of TB
TB Transmission
Drug-Resistant TB
TB Pathogenesis
Progression from LTBI to TB disease
Sites of TB disease
TB Classification System
Case Studies

Transmission is defined as the spread of an organism, such as M. tuberculosis, from one person to another.
M. tuberculosis causes most TB cases in U.S.
TB is spread person to person through the air via droplet nuclei
M. tuberculosis may be expelled when an infectious person:Coughs,Sneezes,Speaks,Sings
Transmission occurs when another person inhales droplet nuclei

Drug-Resistant TB
Caused by M. tuberculosis organisms resistant to  at least one TB treatment drug
Resistant means drugs can no longer kill the bacteria
Primary Resistance
Caused by person-to-person transmission of drug-resistant organisms
Secondary Resistance
Develops during TB treatment:
  Patient was not given appropriate treatment regimen
   OR
  Patient did notfollow treatment regimen as prescribed

TB Pathogenesis_Latent TB Infection (LTBI)
Occurs when tubercle bacilli are in the body, but the immune system is keeping them under control
Detected by the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or by blood tests such as interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) which include:
QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test (QFT-G)
QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT)
T-Spot®.TB test (T-SPOT)
People with LTBI are NOT infectious

TB Pathogenesis_TB Disease
Develops when immune system cannot keep tubercle bacilli under control
May develop very soon after infection or many years after infection
About 10% of all people with normal immune systems who have LTBI will develop TB disease at some point in their lives
People with TB disease are often infectious
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