Acute upper airway obstruction

Posted by e-Medical PPT Sunday, September 30, 2012
Obstruction of the portion of the airways located above the thoracic inlet.
Ranges from nasal obstruction till larynx and upper trachea.

Clinical manifestation
Stridor : ( Inspiratory stridor )
       - Harsh sound produced by vibration of upper airway structure
       -  Indicates upper airway obstruction
Hoarseness:   Indicates involvement of vocal cords
Respiratory distress / suprasternal retraction
Cough
Signs of hypoxemia
      - Anxiety
      - Restlessness
      - Tachycardia
      - Pallor
      - Cyanosis: late sign

Causes of acute upper airway obstruction
Infectious
Non- Infectious

INFECTIOUS
Croup ( Acute laryngotracheobronchitis ).
Bacterial trachitis( membranous croup ).
Acute  epiglottitis.
Diphtheria.
Retropharyngeal abscess / peritonsillar. abscess

Non-INFECTIOUS
Foreign body inhalation.
Spasmodic laryngitis
Caustic burn and trauma.

Croup ( laryngotracheobronchitis )
Term applied to group of inflammatory conditions involving larynx , trachea and characterized by Triad :
Inspiratory stridor
Brassy cough
Hoarseness of voice +/_ resp.distress
Usually  viral in origin
                   - Parainfluenza virus (type 1)
                   - Influenza virus
                   - RSV , adenovirus , measles virus
It is the most common cause of Acute Airway Obstruction in children
Age group 3m-3 years (peak 2years)
Affects boys more often than girls
Peak occurrence is in  fall and winter

Acute epiglottitis
It is a rapidly progreesive bacterial infection causing acute inflammation and edema of the epiglottis and adjacent structures : aryepiglottic folds and arytenoids
Also known as supraglottitis
It is life threatening condition may lead to sudden and complete airway obstruction
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