Benefits of Screening Colonoscopy

Posted by e-Medical PPT Saturday, August 11, 2012
Colorectal Cancer
The third most common cancer in the U.S.
148,810 new cases expected in 2008
The second deadliest cancer
49,960 deaths nationwide
More than 1 million Americans living with colorectal cancer

Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors
Age-90% of cases occur in people 50 and older
Gender-Slight male predominance, but common in both men and women
Race/Ethnicity-African Americans have highest incidence and mortality rate of all groups in U.S., Hispanics the lowest (with considerable variation depending on country of origin).Increased rates also documented in Alaska Natives, some American Indian tribes, Ashkenazi Jews
Increased risk with:Personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, adenomatous polyps, colon cancer, other conditions

Risk Factors - Polyps
Different types
Hyperplastic-Minimal cancer potential
Adenomatous-Approximately 90% of colon and rectal cancers arise from adenomas

Benefits of Screening
Cancer Prevention-Removal of pre-cancerous polyps prevent cancer (unique aspect of colon cancer screening)
Improved Survival-Early detection markedly improves chances of long term survival

Colorectal Screening Rates
Just 40% of colorectal cancers are detected at the earliest stage
A little more than half of Americans over age 50 report having had a recent colorectal cancer screening test
Slow but steady improvement in these numbers over the past decade (but all are not benefiting to the same degree)

CRC Screening Guidelines What’s New?
CRC screening tests are grouped into two categories:
Tests that detect cancer and precancerous polyps
Tests that primarily detect cancer
* It is the strong opinion of the consensus guidelines group that colon cancer prevention should be the primary goal of CRC screening.Exams that are designed to detect both early cancer and precancerous polyps should be encouraged if resources are available and patients are willing to undergo an invasive test.If the full range of screening tests are not available, physicians should make every effort to offer at least one test from each category.
Two new tests recommended:
Stool DNA (sDNA) and
Computerized tomographic colonography (CTC)-sometimes referred to as virtual colonoscopy
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