Neonatal Ventilation

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, April 27, 2011
The primary objective of assisted ventilation is to support breathing until the patient's respiratory efforts are sufficient. Ventilation may be required during immediate care of the infant who is depressed or apneic or during prolonged periods of respiratory failure treatment. Improved survival rates due to advances in neonatal care have resulted in an increased number of infants at risk for chronic lung disease. Although the etiology of lung injury is multifactorial, animal and clinical data indicate that lung injury is affected, in large part, by the ventilatory strategies used. Optimal ventilatory strategies provide the best possible gas exchange, with minimal or no lung injury or other adverse effects.Newborns are vulnerable to impaired gas exchange because of their high metabolic rate, propensity for decreased functional residual capacity (FRC), decreased lung compliance, increased resistance, and potential for right-to-left shunts through the ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, or both. Thus, impaired gas exchange is common in newborns.

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