Acute Viral Hepatitis

Posted by e-Medical PPT Friday, April 29, 2011
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute or chronic forms. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E. In addition to the hepatitis viruses, other viruses that can also cause hepatitis include Herpes simplex, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or Yellow fever.
Hepatitis A or infectious jaundice is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus transmitted by the fecal-oral route often associated with ingestion of contaminated food.It causes an acute form of hepatitis and does not have a chronic stage.
Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus, a hepadnavirus that can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis develops in the 15% of adults who are unable to eliminate the virus after an initial infection. Identified methods of transmission include blood (blood transfusion, now rare), tattoos (both amateur and professionally done), sexually (through sexual intercourse or through contact with blood or bodily fluids), or via mother to child by breast feeding.Hepatitis B infections result in 500,000 to 1,200,000 deaths per year worldwide due to the complications of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatitis C is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV), an RNA virus that is a member of the Flaviviridae family. HCV can be transmitted through contact with blood and can also cross the placenta. Hepatitis C usually leads to chronic hepatitis, culminating in cirrhosis in some people.
The Hepatitis D virus (HDV) or hepatitis delta agent is similar to a viroid as it can only propagate in the presence of the hepatitis B virus.
The Hepatitis E virus (HEV) produces symptoms similar to hepatitis A, although it can take a fulminant course in some patients, particularly pregnant women.

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