Nephrotic syndrome 2

Posted by e-Medical PPT Friday, December 17, 2010
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms including protein in the urine (more than 3.5 grams per day), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling.
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by various disorders that damage the kidneys, particularly the basement membrane of the glomerulus. This immediately causes abnormal excretion of protein in the urine.
The most common cause in children is minimal change disease, while membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.
It is characterized by proteinuria (more than 3.5g/day), hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema which is generalized & also known as anasarca or dropsy.Common among 2-6 years old boys. The edema begins in the face.
A few other characteristics seen in nephrotic syndrome are:
   The most common sign is excess fluid in the body due to the serum hypoalbuminemia. Lower serum oncotic pressure causes fluid to accumulate in the interstitial tissues. Sodium and water retention aggravate the edema. This may take several forms:
   Puffiness around the eyes, characteristically in the morning.
   Pitting edema over the legs.
   Fluid in the pleural cavity causing pleural effusion. More commonly associated with excess fluid is pulmonary edema.
   Fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing ascites.
   Generalized edema throughout the body known as anasarca.

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