Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Posted by e-Medical PPT Saturday, November 20, 2010
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. The most common organism implicated in UTIs (80–85%) is E. Coli,while Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the cause in 5–10%.
Depending on the site of infection, urinary tract infections may cause different symptoms. Urethritis, meaning only the urethra has been affected, does not usually cause any other symptoms besides dysuria. If the bladder is however affected (cystitis), the patient is likely to experience more symptoms including lower abdomen discomfort, low-grade fever, pelvic pressure and frequent urination all together with dysuria.Infection of the kidneys (acute pyelonephritis) typically causes more serious symptoms such as chills, nausea, vomiting and high fever.
Risk factors
  • In young sexually active women, sex is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections
  • Women are more prone to UTIs than men because in females, the urethra is much closer to the anus than in males and they lack the bacteriostatic properties of prostatic secretions
  • Urinary catheters are a risk factor for urinary tract infections
In complicated  cases confirmation via urinalysis looking for the presence of nitrites, leukocytes or leukocyte esterase or via urine microscopy looking for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, and bacteria maybe useful.Urine culture showing a quantitative count of greater than or equal to 105 colony forming units (CFU) per mL of a typical urinary tract organism along with antibiotic sensitives is useful to guide antibiotic choice.The presence of bacteria in the urinary tract of older adults, without symptoms or signs of infection, is a well recognized phenomenon which may not require antibiotics.

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