Nephrolithiasis

Posted by e-Medical PPT Friday, November 5, 2010
Nephrolithiasis refers to the condition of having kidney stones. Urolithiasis refers to the condition of having calculi in the urinary tract (which also includes the kidneys), which may form or pass into the urinary bladder. Ureterolithiasis is the condition of having a calculus in the ureter, the tube connecting the kidneys and the bladder.
Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size before passage on the order of at least 2-3 millimeters they can cause obstruction of the ureter. The resulting obstruction causes dilation or stretching of the upper ureter and renal pelvis as well as muscle spasm of the ureter, trying to move the stone. This leads to pain, most commonly felt in the flank, lower abdomen and groin (renal colic). Renal colic can be associated with nausea and vomiting. There can be blood in the urine, visible with the naked eye or under the microscope (macroscopic or microscopic hematuria) due to damage to the lining of the urinary tract.
There are several types of kidney stones based on the type of crystals of which they consist. The majority are calcium oxalate stones, followed by calcium phosphate stones. More rarely, struvite stones are produced by urea-splitting bacteria in people with urinary tract infections, and people with certain metabolic abnormalities may produce uric acid stones or cystine stones.

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