Scoliosis

Posted by e-Medical PPT Friday, October 29, 2010
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side.It is typically classified as either congenital , idiopathic , sub-classified as infantile, juvenile, adolescent, or adult according to when onset occurred or neuromuscula.
Scoliosis is sometimes associated with other conditions such as Ehler-Danlos syndrome (hyperflexibility, 'floppy baby' syndrome, and other variants of the condition), Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Prader-Willi syndrome, kyphosis, cerebral palsy, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular dystrophy, familial dysautonomia, CHARGE syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, proteus syndrome, spina bifida, Marfan's syndrome, neurofibromatosis, connective tissue disorders, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, hemihypertrophy, and craniospinal axis disorders (e.g., syringomyelia, mitral valve prolapse, Arnold-Chiari malformation).
In the case of the most common form of scoliosis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, there is no clear causal agent and it is generally believed to be multifactorial. Genetics are believed to play a role.
During the exam, the patient is asked to remove his or her shirt and bend forward. (This is known as the Adams Forward Bend Test) If a prominence is noted, then scoliosis is a possibility and the patient should be sent for an X-ray to confirm the diagnosis. Alternatively, a scoliometer may be used to diagnose the condition.The patient's gait is assessed, and there is an exam for signs of other abnormalities (e.g., spina bifida as evidenced by a dimple, hairy patch, lipoma, or hemangioma).
It is usual, when scoliosis is suspected, to arrange for weight-bearing full-spine AP/coronal and lateral/sagittal X-rays to be taken, to assess the scoliosis curves and the kyphosis and lordosis, as these can also be affected in individuals with scoliosis.

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