Hypotonia and Weakness in Infants

Posted by e-Medical PPT Sunday, October 31, 2010
Hypotonia is a state of low muscle tone, often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect motor nerve control by the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing hypotonia, even in early infancy, is usually relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the underlying cause can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's development and later life depend primarily on the severity of the muscle weakness and the nature of the cause.


Some causes of hypotonia
Congenital
Genetic disorders are the most common cause
Down syndrome - most common
Achondroplasia
Marfan's syndrome
Infantile spinal muscular atrophy such as Werdnig-Hoffman disease
Prader-Willi syndrome
Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Developmental disability
Cerebellar ataxia (congenital)
Sensory integration dysfunction
Developmental dyspraxia
Hypothyroidism (congenital)
Hypotonic cerebral palsy

Acquired
Genetic - Muscular dystrophy (including Myotonic dystrophy) - most common,Rett Syndrome,Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Infections - Encephalitis,Guillain-Barré syndrome,Infant botulism,Poliomyelitis
Autoimmunity disorders - Myasthenia gravis

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