Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Posted by e-Medical PPT Saturday, October 23, 2010
Tracheoesophageal fistula is an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea.Congenital TEF can arise due to failed fusion of the tracheoesophageal ridges during the third week of embryological development.Some TEF babies are also born with other abnormalities, most commonly those described in VACTERL association - a group of anomalies which often occur together, including heart, kidney and limb deformities. 6% of babies with TEF also have a laryngeal cleft.
Esophageal atresia is a congenital medical condition which affects the alimentary tract. It causes the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch rather than connecting normally to the stomach. It comprises a variety of congenital anatomic defects that are caused by an abnormal embryological development of the esophagus. Anatomically characterized by a congenital obstruction of the light of the esophagus with interrupted the continuity of the esophageal wall. The esophagus is divided into two blind pouches, an upper and lower, which may or may not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree through fistulous tracts called Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF).
Tracheoesophageal fistula is suggested in a newborn by copious salivation associated with choking, coughing, vomiting, and cyanosis coincident with the onset of feeding. A fistula may also be a the cause of polyhydramnios while in utero.

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