Small Cell Lung Cancer and SIADH

Posted by e-Medical PPT Tuesday, September 21, 2010
 The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. This distinction is important, because the treatment varies; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation.The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, cough and hemoptysis and weight loss.
Small cell lung carcinoma is less common. It was formerly referred to as "oat cell" carcinoma. Most cases arise in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi) and grow rapidly.The small cells contain dense neurosecretory granules,which give this tumor an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association.
Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease.In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome , hypercalcemia, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. This is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's performance status.
Small cell lung carcinoma is treated primarily with chemotherapy and radiation, as surgery has no demonstrable influence on survival.

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