Renal Physiology Part 01

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, September 1, 2010
Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidney.This encompasses all functions of the kidney, including reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, and other small molecules; regulation of sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes; regulation of fluid balance and blood pressure; maintenance of acid-base balance; and the production of various hormones including erythropoietin and vitamin D.
The nephron, is the smallest functional unit of the kidney. Each nephron begins with a filtration component that filters blood entering the kidney. This filtrate then flows along the length of the nephron, which is a tubular structure lined by a single layer of specialized cells and surrounded by capillaries. The major functions of these lining cells are the reabsorption of water and small molecules from the filtrate into the blood, and the secretion of wastes from the blood into the urine.
The kidney's ability to perform many of its functions depends on the three fundamental functions of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, whose sum is renal excretion. The blood is filtered by nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. Each nephron begins in a renal corpuscle, which is composed of a glomerulus enclosed in a Bowman's capsule. The ultrafiltrate is passed through, in turn, the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and a series of collecting ducts to form urine.Tubular reabsorption is the process by which solutes and water are removed from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood. It is called reabsorption.Reabsorption is a two-step process beginning with the active or passive extraction of substances from the tubule fluid into the renal interstitium.Tubular secretion is the transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to renal tubular lumen. Tubular secretion is caused mainly by active transport.

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