Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, September 22, 2010
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. Prolapsed mitral valves are classified into several subtypes, based on leaflet thickness, concavity, and type of connection to the mitral annulus. Subtypes can be described as classic, nonclassic, symmetric, asymmetric, flail, or non-flail.In its nonclassic form, MVP carries a low risk of complications. In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and in rare circumstances cardiac arrest, usually resulting in sudden death.MVP may occur with greater frequency in individuals with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Marfan syndrome.Upon auscultation of an individual with mitral valve prolapse, a mid-systolic click, followed by a late systolic murmur heard best at the apex is common.
patients with MVP experience heart palpitations, atrial fibrillation, or syncope, though the prevalence of these symptoms does not differ significantly from the general population.
Echocardiography is the most useful method of diagnosing a prolapsed mitral valve. Two- and three-dimensional echocardiography are particularly valuable as they allow visualization of the mitral leaflets relative to the mitral annulus.Thickening of the mitral leaflets more than 5 mm and leaflet displacement more than2 mm indicates classic mitral valve prolapse.
Individuals with MVP are at higher risk of infective endocarditis.American Heart Association recommended prescribing antibiotics before invasive procedures, including those in dental surgery.

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