Infertility

Posted by e-Medical PPT Saturday, September 11, 2010
Definitions of infertility
The couple has not conceived after 12 months of contraceptive-free intercourse if the female is under the age of 34 years or The couple has not conceived after 6 months of contraceptive-free intercourse if the female is over the age of 35 years.
Couples with primary infertility have never been able to conceive, while, on the other hand, secondary infertility is difficulty conceiving after already having conceived (and either carried the pregnancy to term or had a miscarriage).

Causes of female infertility
  • Advanced maternal age
  • Smoking
  • Body weight and eating disorders
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Ovarian factors - Polycystic ovarian syndrome,Anovulation,Premature menopause,Luteal dysfunction
  • Gonadal dysgenesis (Turner syndrome),Ovarian cancer
  • Tubal (ectopic)/peritoneal factors - Endometriosis,Pelvic adhesions,Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, usually due to chlamydia),Tubal occlusion,Tubal dysfunction
  • Uterine factors - Uterine malformations,Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma),Asherman's Syndrome
  • Cervical factors - Cervical stenosis,Non-receptive cervical mucus

Medical treatment of infertility generally involves the use of fertility medication, medical device, surgery, or a combination of the following. If the sperm are of good quality and the mechanics of the woman’s reproductive structures are good (patent fallopian tubes, no adhesions or scarring), physicians may start by prescribing a course of ovarian stimulating medication.If conservative medical treatments fail to achieve a full term pregnancy, the physician may suggest the patient undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF).

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