Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Posted by e-Medical PPT Friday, September 3, 2010
Antiphospholipid syndrome is a disorder of coagulation that causes thrombosisin both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, or severe preeclampsia. The syndrome occurs due to the autoimmune production of antibodies against phospholipid of cell membrane substance.Primary antiphospholipid syndrome is used when its occurs in the absence of any other related disease.Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome is used when APS coexists with other diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause (arterial/venous) thrombosis  or pregnancy-related complications. In APS patients, the most common venous event is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities and the most common arterial event is stroke. In pregnant women affected by APS, miscarriage can occur prior to 20 week of gestation, while pre-eclampsia is reported to occur after that time. Placental infarctions, early deliveries and stillbirth are also reported in women with APS. Other common findings, although not part of the APS Classification Criteria, are thrombocytopenia,heart valve disease, and livedo reticularis.
APS diagnosis requires:
* a) Vascular Thrombosis  in any organ or tissue or Pregnancy Event (one or more miscarriages after 10th week of gestation, three or more miscarriages before 10th week of gestation, or one or more premature births before 34th week of gestation due to eclampsia)
* b) Persistently (6 weeks apart) Positive aPL (lupus anticoagulant test, moderate-to-high titer anticardiolipin antibodies, or moderate-to-high titer β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies).

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