Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Acute Complications

Posted by e-Medical PPT Thursday, September 30, 2010
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of the bone marrow in which hematopoietic precursors are arrested in an early stage of development. Most AML subtypes are distinguished from other related blood disorders by the presence of more than 20% blasts in the bone marrow.The underlying pathophysiology in acute myelogenous leukemia consists of a maturational arrest of bone marrow cells in the earliest stages of development. This developmental arrest results in 2 disease processes. First, the production of normal blood cells markedly decreases, which results in varying degrees of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Second, the rapid proliferation of these cells, along with a reduction in their ability to apoptosis, results in their accumulation in the bone marrow, blood, and, frequently, the spleen and liver.Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is more common in men than in women. The prevalence of AML increases with age. The median age of onset is approximately 70 years.
Patients with AML present with symptoms resulting from bone marrow failure, organ infiltration with leukemic cells, or both.The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue.And they may also  present with fever or history of upper respiratory infection symptoms that have not improved despite empiric treatment with oral antibiotics.Patients present with bleeding gums and multiple ecchymoses. Bleeding may be caused by thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy that results from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

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