Renal cell carcinoma

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, August 25, 2010
Renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the proximal convoluted tubule. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 80% of cases.It is also known to be the most lethal of all the genitourinary tumors. Initial treatment is most commonly a radical or partial nephrectomy and remains the mainstay of curative treatment.Where the tumour is confined to the renal parenchyma, the 5-year survival rate is 60-70%, but this is lowered considerably where metastases have spread. It is resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, although some cases respond to immunotherapy.
Cigarette smoking and obesity are the strongest known risk factors. Hypertension and a family history of the disease are also risk factors.Dialysis patients with acquired cystic disease of the kidney showed a 30 times greater risk than in the general population for developing RCC.Exposure to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gasoline has not been shown to be consistently associated with RCC risk.Patients with certain inherited disorders such as von Hippel-Lindau disease show an enhanced risk of RCC.
RCC is classified as
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma
  • Collecting duct carcinoma
The classic triad of renal cell carcinoma is hematuria,flank pain and an abdominal mass.
Computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, intravenous pyelograms, and ultrasound can be very helpful in diagnosing most kinds of kidney tumors.Biopsies are not often used to diagnose kidney tumors.

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