Paraneoplastic syndrome

Posted by e-Medical PPT Monday, August 23, 2010
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor. Paraneoplastic syndromes are typical among middle aged to older patients,and they most commonly present with cancers of the lung, breast, ovaries or a lymphoma. Sometimes the symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes show even before the diagnosis of a malignancy.
Paraneoplastic syndromes can be divided into 4 main categories: Endocrine, neurological, mucocutaneous and hematological paraneoplastic syndromes
Endocrine - Cushing syndrome,SIADH,Hypercalcemia,Hypoglycemia,Carcinoid syndrome and Polycythemia
Neurological - Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS),Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration,Encephalomyelitis,Limbic encephalitis,Brainstem encephalitis,Opsoclonus ,Polymyositis
Mucocutaneous - Acanthosis nigricans,Dermatomyositis Pyoderma gangrenosum
Hematological - Polycythemia,Granulocytosis,Anemia and Trousseau sign

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