Ovarian Cancer

Posted by e-Medical PPT Saturday, August 7, 2010
Most (more than 90%) ovarian cancers are classified as "epithelial" and were believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary.Ovarian tumors may arise at any age, but are commonest between 30 and 60.Ovarian tumors are particularly liable to be or to become malignant. In developed countries,women have a lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of about 1.4%,which is slightly greater than the risk of cervical or endometrial cancers, but well below the 7% average risk of breast cancer
The risk increases with age and decreases with pregnancy.Genetic factor are sometimes involved、as in the Lynch Syndrome of familial breast colorectal and ovarian cancer.Ovulation induction with Clomiphene over more than year carries a l0-fold increased risk of ovarian cancer, Long-term ora1 contraceptive use reduces the incidence of ovarian cancers.
Ovarian cancer causes non-specific symptoms.Early diagnosis would result in better survival, on the assumption that stage I and II cancers progress to stage III and IV cancers (but this has not been proven). Most women with ovarian cancer report one or more symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, an abdominal mass, bloating, back pain, urinary urgency, constipation, tiredness and a range of other non-specific symptoms, as well as more specific symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding or involuntary weight loss.There can be a build-up of fluid (ascites) in the abdominal cavity.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer starts with a physical examination,a blood test (for CA-125 ), and transvaginal ultrasound. The diagnosis must be confirmed with surgery to inspect the abdominal cavity, take biopsies and look for cancer cells in the abdominal fluid. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy and surgery, and sometimes radiotherapy.
There is one well-known secondary tumour of the ovary, the krukenberg tumour, a secondary of a stomach carcinoma.

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