Abdominal Trauma

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, August 4, 2010
Blunt abdominal trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups.Injury to intra-abdominal structures can be classified into 2 primary mechanisms of injury–compression forces and deceleration forces.The liver and spleen seem to be the most frequently injured organs, although reports vary. Small and large intestines are the next most injured organs, respectively.
In abdominal trauma
  • Observe the respiratory pattern because abdominal breathing may indicate spinal cord injury.
  • Bradycardia may indicate the presence of free intraperitoneal blood in a patient with blunt abdominal injuries.
  • The Cullen sign (ie, periumbilical ecchymosis) may indicate retroperitoneal hemorrhage; however, this symptom usually takes several hours to develop. Flank bruising and swelling may raise suspicion for a retroperitoneal injury.
  • Abdominal bruit may indicate underlying vascular disease or traumatic arteriovenous fistula.
  • Signs of peritonitis  (eg, involuntary guarding, rigidity) soon after an injury suggest leakage of intestinal content. Peritonitis due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage may take several hours to develop.

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