Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Posted by e-Medical PPT Sunday, July 11, 2010
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that manifests in early childhood with symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. The symptoms affect cognitive, academic, behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of the child. Prevalence and natural history data suggest that about 23 of the 3 to 10 percent of children diagnosed with ADHD continue to manifest appreciable ADHD symptoms into adult life
Increased norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in the brainstem, midbrain, and frontal cortex are thought to be responsible for the increased attention span and concentration that occur in children with ADHD who are treated with stimulants.
Stimulant drugs are considered the first-line treatment for ADHD in children based on a long record of safety and efficacy. Stimulant drugs include methylphenidate (eg, Ritalin, Methylin, Concerta, Focalin, Metadate), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and mixed amphetamine salts (eg, Adderall). Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine are the stimulants most commonly used in the treatment of ADHD.
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