Congestive heart failure

Posted by e-Medical PPT Monday, June 21, 2010
Congestive Heart failure is generally defined as inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs.In contrast to that High output cardiac failure seen in the context of severe anemia, Gram negative septicaemia, beriberi(vitamin B1/thiamine deficiency), thyrotoxicosis, Paget's disease, arteriovenous fistulae or arteriovenous malformations.
Common causes of Congestive heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease and cardiomyopathy.In developing countries, around 2% of adults suffer from heart failure, but in those over the age of 65, this increases to 6–10%.
Backward failure of the left ventricle causes congestion of the pulmonary vasculature and the patient will have dyspnea on exertion ,orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (cardiac asthma)_ a sudden nighttime attack of severe breathlessness.Compromise of left ventricular forward function may result in symptoms of poor systemic circulation such as dizziness, confusion and cool extremities at rest.
Backward failure of the right ventricle leads to congestion of systemic capillaries(peripheral edema,ascites and hepatomegaly
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