Congenital hypothyroidism

Posted by e-Medical PPT Wednesday, June 9, 2010
The thyroid gland develops from the buccopharyngeal cavity between 4 and 10 weeks' gestation. The thyroid arises from the fourth branchial pouches and ultimately ends up as a bilobed organ in the neck. Errors in the formation or migration of thyroid tissue can result in thyroid aplasia, dysplasia, or ectopy. By 10-11 weeks' gestation, the fetal thyroid is capable of producing thyroid hormone. By 18-20 weeks' gestation, blood levels of T4 have reached term levels. The fetal pituitary-thyroid axis is believed to function independently of the maternal pituitary-thyroid axis.
Inborn errors of thyroid metabolism can result in congenital hypothyroidism in children with anatomically normal thyroid glands.And radioactive iodine administered to a pregnant woman can ablate the fetus's thyroid gland permanently.
Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal brain growth and myelination and for normal neuronal connections. The most critical period for the effect of thyroid hormone on brain development is the first few months of life.

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